Nutrition Publication

NNIW43 - Nutrition of the Very Low Birthweight Infant

Editor(s): E. E. Ziegler, A. Lucas, G.E. Moro. vol. 43

Related Articles

Nutrition of the Very Low Birthweight Infant

Author(s): E.E. Ziegler, A. Lucas, G.E. Moro

Early Nutrition and Later Outcome

Author(s): A. Lucas

The scientific studies of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that underpinnedthe development of more recent pediatric nutritional practice occurred long beforethe formal development of pediatrics.

Early Growth and Later Development

Author(s): R. Morley

There has been long-standing interest in whether a stimulus at a sensitive or criticalperiod in development could have a long-lasting or permanent "programming" influenceon later structure or function.

Supply and Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Lc-Pufa) in Premature Infants

Author(s): B. Koletzko, U. Diener, M. Fink, T. Berghaus, H. Demmelmair, P. Von Schonaich, U. Bernsau

The feeding of preterm infants is a substitute for the placental nutrient supply that providesthe substrates required for intrauterine growth and development.

Early Use of Parenteral Amino Acids

Author(s): W.C. Heird

The potential importance of the early nutritional management of low-birthweight(LBW) infants, including the early use of parenteral amino acids, is best illustratedby the pattern of their early growth.

Early Administration of Intravenous Lipids: Still Under Debate

Author(s): G. Putet

Intravenous lipid (IL) emulsions are important constituents of total parenteral nutrition(TPN) because they provide essential fatty acids and allow an increase in energyintake without giving an excess of glucose, which may be associated with an increasein carbon dioxide production.

Fortification of Human Milk

Author(s): G.E. Moro, I. Minoli

Human milk may confer nutritional and nonnutritional advantages in feeding thepreterm infant, including protection against infections and enhanced intestinal development.

Clinical Benefits of Human Milk for Premature Infants

Author(s): R.J. Schanler

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding throughout the firstyear after birth for the full-term neonate and acknowledges the benefits of human milkin the management of premature infants (1).

Development of Lung Defenses Against Free Radical Injury

Author(s): L. Frank

Oxygen represents one of the more fascinating biological paradoxes, for, while lifegivingin normal concentrations, it becomes universally toxic to cells and organismsat hyperoxic levels.

Pro-Oxidant Effects o Iron in the Newborn Period

Author(s): H.M. Berger, R.M.W. Moison, D. Van Zoeren-Grobben, N. Conneman, J. Geerdink

Iron, a transition metal, can take part in redox processes by undergoing reversible valencychanges. It plays an essential role in oxygen transport by hemoglobin in erythrocytes,oxygen storage by myoglobin in muscle, and electron transfer and energymetabolism in mitochondria.

Nitrogen Balance and Plasma Amino Acids in the Evaluation of Protein Sources for Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

Author(s): J. Rigo, G. Putet, J.C. Picaudc, C. Pieltain, M. De Curtis, B.L. Salle, J. Senterre

The nutritional problems of preterm babies have become particularly relevant in thelast decade because of the increased survival of extremely low birthweight (ELBW)infants and the numerous studies underlining the importance of early feeding onshort- and long-term development (1).

Protein Requirement of the Extremely Low-Birth Weight Preterm Infant

Author(s): J-L. Micheli, C-L. Fawer, Y. Schutz

In most neonatal units, the number of extremely immature infants has increased considerablyover the last 15 years. Their mortality and morbidity have decreased, andmore attention has been paid to their nutritional needs.

Protective Nutrients for the Immature Gut

Author(s): W.A. Walker, D. Dai

Humans live in close association with vast numbers of microorganisms that are presenton the skin, in the mouth, and in the gastrointestinal tract.

Feeding and Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Author(s): F.F. Rubaltelli, R. Biadaioli, M.F. Reali

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired syndrome affecting the gastrointestinaltract defined as "ischemic-inflammatory necrosis of neonatal bowel." This syndromeis one of the most serious problems affecting newborns, and its frequency isgreatest among premature and low-birthweight (LBW) infants (increased betweenfourfold and 10-fold compared with full-term infants) (1).

Feeding and Maturation of Gut Motility

Author(s): C.L. Berseth

Motor function is exerted by the three muscle layers that comprise the outer layers ofthe intestine. These muscle layers must contract in a coordinated fashion

Actual Nutrient Intakes of Extremely Low-Birth Weight Infants

Author(s): S.J. Carlson

Nutrient requirements have been described for the extremely low-birthweight infant(ELBW; less than 1,000 g birthweight) (1-3).

Trophic Feeds

Author(s): E.E. Ziegler

The question of when to start enteral feeding confronts the caretaker of very lowbirthweight(VLBW) infants on a daily basis. Seemingly conflicting objectives enterinto consideration.

Milk-Borne Growth Factors and Gut Development

Author(s): B. Dvorak, A.F. Philipps, O. Koldovsky

The gastrointestinal tract undergoes substantial changes during the period of development.Profound growth, morphological changes, and functional maturation are observedduring this developmental period in the small intestine.