Nutrition Publication

NNIW32 - Nutrition of the Low Birthweight Infant

Editor(s): B. Salle, P. Swyer, L. Ziino. vol. 32

Related Articles

Nutrition of the Low Birthweight Infant

Author(s): B. Salle, P. Swyer, L. Ziino

Anatomical Gut Growth and Development

Author(s): J. Schmitz

The anatomical development of the human gut has been extensively studied andis now well understood even at the ultrastructural level. However, the mechanismscontrolling gut development remain obscure.

Digestive Functions and Their Hormonal Regulation During Perinatal Development in Man and Experimental Animals

Author(s): O. Koldovsky

Shortly after birth, infants start to consume milk, which is later replaced by a soliddiet. Qualitatively and quantitatively, several major differences exist between thecomposition of the suckling's food, i.e., milk, and that of adults.

Gut Development and Immunology

Author(s): T.T. MacDonald

The mucosal immune system protects the most vulnerable surfaces of the body(e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and eyes) from the colonization and/or invasionby pathogenic microorganisms.

The Evolution of Research Techniques in Premature Infant Nutrition

Author(s): B.L. Nichols

Tarnier, the French obstetrician, developed an incubator for premature infant careafter seeing young chickens in an incubator at the Paris Zoo in 1878.

Fluid Requirements, Water Balance, and Metabolism in Low Birthweight Infants

Author(s): J-L. Micheli, Y. Schutz, R. Pfister, B. Laubscher, A. Calame, E. Jequier

In order to appreciate how far the measurements of total body water can help inevaluating the fluid requirements of preterm infants, it is interesting to examine theevolution of whole body composition in absolute and relative terms and to compareintrauterine to early postnatal values (Fig. 1).

Thermoregulation and Environmental Influences on Energy Expenditure of the Low Birthweight Infant

Author(s): E. Jequier

At the moment of birth, the newborn infant is abruptly exposed to the thermalenvironment of the delivery room and the body temperature immediately begins tofall.

Utilization and Storage of Energy

Author(s): G. Putet, J-C. Picaud, B.L. Salle, J. Rigo, J. Senterre

Utilization and storage of energy in growing very low birthweight (VLBW) preterminfants can be studied using the concept of energy balance:

Fat Digestion: Intestinal Lipolysis and Product Absorption

Author(s): L. Blackberg, O. Hernell

Fat digestion in the breastfed newborn infant is a process catalyzed by three Upases.The process is initiated in stomach contents by gastric lipase and continues in theupper part of the small intestine by pancreatic colipase-dependent lipase and humanmilk bile-salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL).

Requirements of Preterm Infants for Long- Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Experimental Study With Placenta Phospholipids

Author(s): V. Chirouze

Fat represents 40% to 50% of the total energy in breast milk and infant formulas.In addition to being the major energy source, dietary fats are important qualitativelybecause they supply essential fatty acids (EFA) crucial to normal growth of newtissue membrane lipids.

Modification of Protein Metabolism Due to Disease

Author(s): N.K. Fukagawa

Protein metabolism in human beings involves the breakdown of food protein intopeptides and amino acids, and the distribution of and use of the amino acids asbuilding blocks for protein molecules, as precursors for non-protein metabolites (e.g.,neurotransmitters, purines and pyrimidines, creatinine, peptide hormones, etc.), oras a source of energy.

Placental Transfer of Minerals

Author(s): R.D.H. Boyd, S. Byrne, D. Edwards, J. Glazier, S. Greenwood, S. Husain, D. Mahendran, Z. Mughal, J. Stulc, C. Sibley

It is a curious feature of mammalian life that fetal plasma and maternal plasmaare kept significantly different in composition. In woman (for whom a full range ofconcentration differences are reported in ref. 1), the differences are most striking forprotein and peptide hormones, for which concentration differences may be as muchas four orders of magnitude.

Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, and Vitamin D Requirements in Premature Infants

Author(s): B.L. Salle, J. Senterre, G. Putet

Ninety-nine percent of the calcium and most of the phosphorus in the body is inthe skeleton; these elements and magnesium are also constituents of the intracellularand extracellular spaces.

Transport of The Lipid-Soluble Vitamins A, D, and K by Human Placenta

Author(s): E.E. Delvin

Optimization of transmission of nutrients from, and the return of wastes to, themother insures maximum fetal growth. Concentration gradient, molecular size, andhydrophobicity of the solutes being transported are critical factors to be consideredin placental transfer processes.

Vitamins for Very Low Birthweight Infants

Author(s): M. Orzalesi, R. Lucchini

During the past few years much attention has been paid to vitamin requirementsfor very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and numerous original papers and reviewarticles, as well as guidelines and recommendations from official bodies, have appearedin the literature (1-9).

Nutrition, Growth, and Body Composition

Author(s): W.C. Heird, S. Kashyap, R. Ramakrishnan, K.F. Schulze, R.B. Dell

The most widely accepted guideline for nutritional management of the lowbirthweight (LBW) infant is to provide sufficient intakes of all nutrients to achievepostnatal rates of growth and nutrient accretion approximating those of a normalfetus during the same period of development (1,2).

Influence of Neonatal Nutrition on Long-Term Outcome

Author(s): A. Lucas

Over the past 50 years more research has been conducted in preterm infant nutritionthan in virtually any other field of neonatal care, yet uncertainty persists in clinicalpractice.

An Approach to Partial Parenteral Nutrition in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants

Author(s): A. Priolisi

Several parenteral amino acid mixtures for pediatric patients have been introducedduring the last decade and given to infants of low birthweight (LBW) or very lowbirthweight (VLBW) to support growth and nitrogen retention.