Nutrition Publication

NNIW05 - Nutrition and Brain

Editor(s): J.D. Fernstrom, R. Uauy, P. Arroyo. Clinical Nutrition vol. 05

Related Articles

Nutrition and Brain

Author(s): F. Haschke

Undernutrition early in life results in impaired growth but also in lowerIQ, cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and impaired motor skills. It hasbeen proven that deficits continue until school age, adolescence, and evenadulthood.

Undernutrition and Mental Development

Author(s): S.M. Grantham-McGregor, C.C. Ani

Childhood malnutrition is currently diagnosed by comparing children’santhropometric measurements to the median of international references(NCHS [1]) for their age and sex, and expressing the results in standard deviationscores (SDs) [2].

Interaction of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Neurofunctions in Cognitive Development

Author(s): P. Peirano, C. Algarin, M. Garrido, F. Pizarro, M. Roncagliolo, B. Lozoff

During the last decades, the quantity of malnourished infants in the developingworld has tended to decrease. Iron deficiency continues to be thesingle most common nutritional deficiency and the main cause of anemia(IDA) in infancy, childhood and pregnancy affecting more than 2,000 millionpersons worldwide [1].

Mechanisms for Nutrient Effects on Brain Development and Cognition

Author(s): R. Uauy, P.Mena, P, Peirano

Multiple studies over the past five decades have addressed the evaluationof the effects of malnutrition on central nervous system (CNS) developmentin experimental animals and humans.

Carbohydrate And Fat-Based Appetite Control Mechanisms

Author(s): Wolfgang Langhans

Any physiological mechanism that controls appetite must influence the sizeand/or frequency of individual meals through positive or negative feedback.Positive feedback initiates and maintains eating; it is mainly provided by thesensory properties of food and their hedonic evaluation, which changes basedon experience and physiological state.

Neuropeptides and the Control of Energy Homeostasis

Author(s): S.C. Woods, P.A. Rushing, R.J. Seeley

We live in an era of unprecedented advancement in our knowledge ofthe biological controls over eating and the regulation of body adiposity.This has been accomplished in part by technological innovations that enableprobing the workings of individual cells and even molecules, as well as by anenormous investment of funds for basic research by government and industry.

Diet, Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Appetite Control

Author(s): J.D. Fernstrom, M.H. Fernstrom

Appetite and the acquisition of appropriate foods represent an importantaspect of the overall process of growth and development in animals, and ofbody weight maintenance in adults.

Nutrients and Affective Disorders

Author(s): S.E. Møller

Depressive disorders are among the most common diseases in humans withapproximately 11% of all adults afflicted by these disorders during any oneyear [1].

Nutrition, Serotonin and Behavior in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

Author(s): W. Kaye, K. Gendall, M. Strober

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders characterizedby aberrant patterns of feeding behavior and weight regulation, anddisturbances in attitudes toward weight and shape and the perception of bodyshape.

Lipids in Neural Function: Modulation of Behavior by Oral Administration of Endocannabinoids Found in Foods

Author(s): G. Crozier Willi, A. Berger, V. Di Marzo, T. Bisogno, L. De Petrocellis, E. Fride, R. Mechoulam

Although ?9(–)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is not naturally found in thebody, receptors for this compound have been described in brain since1988 [1].

Nutritional Impact on Sleep-Wake Cycle

Author(s): F. Garcia-Garcia, R. Drucker-Colin

Sleep is an extremely complex phenomenon involving all levels of theneuraxis and multiple levels of regulation. Today it is universally acceptedthat mammals and primates present at least two basic stages of sleep.

Aging, B Vitamins and Cognitive Decline

Author(s): I.H. Rosenberg

No other organ system of the body depends more minutely on its nutrientsupply than the central nervous system (CNS). In turn, that system hasa profound effect on dietary intake.

Diet-Related Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease: Different Hypotheses

Author(s): A-S. Nicolas, B. Vellas

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of senile dementia. Thisdisease, which is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitivefunction, affects 15 million people worldwide.

Nutritional Pathogenesis and Prevention of Stroke

Author(s): Y. Yamori, K.I.M. Tagami, K. Yamagataa, Y. Nara

The importance of nutrition in the pathogenesis and prevention of strokewas first experimentally proven by our works on stroke-prone spontaneouslyhypertensive rats (SHIRSP) [1–3].

Risk from Exposure to Metals: Deficits and Excesses (Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, B)

Author(s): G. Rotilio

Adequate supply of metals by the diet is essential for proper functioningof all cells and tissues. This is true, in particular, for trace elements, mostlytransition metal ions, which act as cofactors of many essential enzymes.

Nutritional Reversion of Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

Author(s): D. Bunout, C. Fjeld

Neurocognitive function is a major determinant of life quality for elderlypersons. As such, neurocognitive impairment is one of the most feared problemsassociated with aging.

Metabolic Encephalopathies: Liver Disease, Renal Failure, Critical Illness

Author(s): E. Holm, R. Breitkreutz, M. Tokus

Disorders of brain function not induced by primary lesions of brain structuremay become apparent as acute, chronic, or acute-on-chronic encephalopathies.Almost all of these conditions are in principle reversible upon treatment.

The Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy

Author(s): J.M. Freeman

Epilepsy often starts during childhood and has a substantial impact onthe quality of life of affected individuals and on their family [1]. A schematicdiagram of the course of seizures and epilepsy and of the role of the ketogenicdiet are shown in Figure 1.