Undernutrition early in life results in impaired growth but also in lowerIQ, cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and impaired motor skills. It hasbeen proven that deficits continue until school age, adolescence, and evenadulthood.
Childhood malnutrition is currently diagnosed by comparing children’santhropometric measurements to the median of international references(NCHS ) for their age and sex, and expressing the results in standard deviationscores (SDs) .
Interaction of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Neurofunctions in Cognitive Development
Author(s): P. Peirano, C. Algarin, M. Garrido, F. Pizarro, M. Roncagliolo, B. Lozoff
During the last decades, the quantity of malnourished infants in the developingworld has tended to decrease. Iron deficiency continues to be thesingle most common nutritional deficiency and the main cause of anemia(IDA) in infancy, childhood and pregnancy affecting more than 2,000 millionpersons worldwide .
Mechanisms for Nutrient Effects on Brain Development and Cognition
Any physiological mechanism that controls appetite must influence the sizeand/or frequency of individual meals through positive or negative feedback.Positive feedback initiates and maintains eating; it is mainly provided by thesensory properties of food and their hedonic evaluation, which changes basedon experience and physiological state.
Neuropeptides and the Control of Energy Homeostasis
We live in an era of unprecedented advancement in our knowledge ofthe biological controls over eating and the regulation of body adiposity.This has been accomplished in part by technological innovations that enableprobing the workings of individual cells and even molecules, as well as by anenormous investment of funds for basic research by government and industry.
Diet, Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Appetite Control
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders characterizedby aberrant patterns of feeding behavior and weight regulation, anddisturbances in attitudes toward weight and shape and the perception of bodyshape.
Lipids in Neural Function: Modulation of Behavior by Oral Administration of Endocannabinoids Found in Foods
Author(s): G. Crozier Willi, A. Berger, V. Di Marzo, T. Bisogno, L. De Petrocellis, E. Fride, R. Mechoulam
Sleep is an extremely complex phenomenon involving all levels of theneuraxis and multiple levels of regulation. Today it is universally acceptedthat mammals and primates present at least two basic stages of sleep.
Adequate supply of metals by the diet is essential for proper functioningof all cells and tissues. This is true, in particular, for trace elements, mostlytransition metal ions, which act as cofactors of many essential enzymes.
Nutritional Reversion of Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly
Disorders of brain function not induced by primary lesions of brain structuremay become apparent as acute, chronic, or acute-on-chronic encephalopathies.Almost all of these conditions are in principle reversible upon treatment.
Epilepsy often starts during childhood and has a substantial impact onthe quality of life of affected individuals and on their family . A schematicdiagram of the course of seizures and epilepsy and of the role of the ketogenicdiet are shown in Figure 1.