Systems-Level Nutrition Approaches to Define Phenotypes Resulting from Complex Gene-Environment Interactions
High-throughput metabolomic, proteomic, and genomic technologies have delivered21st-century data showing that humans cannot be randomized into groups: individualsare genetically and biochemically distinct. Gene-environment interactions caused byunique dietary and lifestyle factors contribute to the heterogeneity in physiologies observedin human studies.The risk factors determined for populations (i.e. the populationattributablerisk) cannot be applied to the individual. Developing individual risk/benefitfactors in light of the genetic diversity of human populations, the complexity of foods,culture and lifestyle, and the variety in metabolic processes that lead to health or diseaseare significant challenges for personalizing dietary advice for healthy or diseased individuals.