Nutrition Publication

NNIW52 - Micronutrient Deficiencies in the First Months of Life

Editor(s): F. Delange, K.P. West. vol. 52

Related Articles

Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Mothers and Young Infants

Author(s): C.J. Bates

Public health decisions are seldom straightforward. An example of thecomplexities that may surface when a potentially beneficial intervention hasbeen identified, is the recent experience of attempts to introduce flourfortification with folic acid in the UK.

Setting Dietary Reference Intakes for Micronutrients for Healthy North American Infants: A Process of Trials and Errors

Author(s): V.R. Young

From a purely biochemical and mechanistic viewpoint, normal growth anddevelopment of the infant depends upon a program that is orchestrated bythe genome and initiated through transduction mechanisms by signalsoriginating outside the cell.

Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Mothers and Infants

Author(s): F.M. Delange

Iodine is a micronutrient present in minute amounts (15–20 mg) in thehuman body, almost exclusively in the thyroid gland. Iodine is an essentialcomponent of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3),comprising 65 and 59% of their respective weights.

Micronutrient Interactions on Risk of Infantile Anemia: Going Beyond Iron Alone!

Author(s): L. Davidsson

Iron deficiency in its most severe form results in anemia (iron deficiencyanemia, IDA) and since anemia (Hb concentration or Hct below establishedcutoff levels) is relatively easy to diagnose, the prevalence of anemia has oftenbeen used as a proxy for IDA.

Rickets Due to Maternal and Infant Micronutrient Deficiencies

Author(s): J.M. Pettifor

Typically nutritional rickets and osteomalacia are problems associated withthe extremes of life. In both groups they are the consequence of an inabilityto obtain adequate exposure to ultraviolet radiation as a result of theirdependence on others to get out of doors into sunlight.

Assuring Micronutrient Adequacy in the Diets of Young Infants

Author(s): L.H. Allen, J.M. Graham

Based on a WHO Expert Consultation, the World Health Assemblyrecommends that infants should be exclusively breast-fed for about the first6 months of life [1]. Additional foods or fluids are considered to becontraindicated, except in rare cases.

Public Health Impact of Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency in the First Six Months of Life

Author(s): K.P. West

Vitamin A is required for normal human growth and development, withnuclear receptors for this nutritional ligand detectable in embryonic life.

Does Iron Deficiency Cause Low Birth Weight, Prematurity, Anemia, and Mortality in Early Infancy?

Author(s): J.L. Beard

Observational studies over the past 30 years document a strong associationbetween maternal anemia and birth outcomes such as low birth weight(LBW), prematurity, infant anemia, and mortality for either mother or infant.

Preventing Zinc Deficiency in Early Infancy: Impact on Morbidity, Growth and Mortality

Author(s): S. Sazawal, P. Malik

The importance of zinc as a nutrient essential for growth, tissue repair,neural and cognitive development, development and functionality of theimmune system has been known for a long time [1].

Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Status on Host Defense and Resistance to Infection

Author(s): S. Nikbin Meydani, H. Chung, S. Nim Han

Infectious diseases (respiratory and diarrheal) are among the leadingcauses of death in children around the world. The immune system in childrenis not developed and is different from that of adults.

Early Infant Vitamin K Deficiency: Extent, Health Consequences and Approaches to Prophylaxis

Author(s): M.J. Shearer, H-F. Zhang

The classical role of vitamin K is as an antihemorrhagic factor whichis needed for the synthesis in the liver of functional forms of prothrombin(factor II) together with factors VII, IX and X [1, 2].

Effects of Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation on Newborn Size and Infant Health and Survival

Author(s): P. Christian

Strategies to lower the rates of low birth weight and perinatal and neonatalmortality in the Third World have had limited success. In south Asia alone,10–15% of infants are stillborn, die within 7 days of birth, or are born alive butfail to survive beyond the 1st month of life.

Special Micronutrient Concerns in Premature Infants: Implications for Enteral and Parenteral Feeding

Author(s): S. Zlotkin

There are a number of features specific to the infant born prematurely thatchallenge the caregiver to achieve appropriate goals for growth, nutrientaccretion and mental and physiologic development.

Micronutrients and Child Health in the Presence of Hiv Infection

Author(s): R. Kupka, W. Fawzi

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the major publichealth challenges worldwide. According to most recent estimates,approximately 40 million persons are HIV-infected, among them 2.7 millionchildren under 15 years of age [1].

Reducing Risks of Birth Defects with Periconceptional Micronutrient Supplementation

Author(s): A.E. Czeizel

Birth defects (the World Health Organization prefers the term congenitalanomalies) represent a particular category of pathological conditions. Asfigure 1 shows births defects have a wide spectrum of developmental disturbances,however, we are interested in structural birth defects, i.e. congenitalabnormalities (CAs), in this presentation.

Effects of Micronutrients During Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development

Author(s): H. Verhoef, C.E. West, N. Bleichrodt, P.H. Dekker, M.P. Born

Spectacular progress has been made in the last decades in the global fightagainst deficiencies of iodine and vitamin A [1]. As a result, the number ofpeople suffering from iodine deficiency has been reduced from about 1.5billion in 1990 to about 0.5 billion now, almost entirely due to the introductionin many countries of what has been termed ‘universal salt iodization’.