Nutrition Publication

NNIW09 - Metabolic Issues of Clinical Nutrition

Editor(s): V.L.W. Go, S. Allison. Clinical Nutrition vol. 09

Related Articles

Metabolic Issues of Clinical Nutrition

Author(s): S.P. Allison, V.L.W. Go

In devising this program with our Nestle colleagues we have attempted notonly to review some of the new developments and pressing problems in clinicalnutrition and metabolism, but also to develop some unifying themes runningacross the nutritional spectrum, from undernutrition to obesity, and fromstarvation and weight loss to acute medical and surgical illness.

Under- and Overnutrition: A Global Perspective

Author(s): W.P.T. James, R. Leach, N. Rigby

The world is now confronted with a set of medical problems of nutritionalorigin with which it has never previously had to contend, i.e. both undernutritionof various types and a huge and rapidly escalating burden of diseasescrudely classified as relating to overnutrition.

Environmental Influences on Diseases in Later Life

Author(s): L. Tappy, G. Seematter, J-L. Martin

Over the last century, there has been a rapid decrease in the incidence ofmany infectious diseases. Over the same period, the prevalence of severalnoninfectious diseases, e.g. obesity, type-2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease,has increased dramatically to the point that we are facing an epidemic of noncommunicablediseases.

Insulin Sensitivity: Normal and Abnormal

Author(s): A. Basu

Insulin is the major anabolic hormone in the human body. Secreted by thecells of the pancreatic islets, typically in response to a meal, it is fundamentalin maintaining normal glucose homeostasis.

Insulin Resistance in Catabolic Diseases

Author(s): S.P. Allison, A. Martinez-Riquelme

With remarkable intuition, John Hunter [1] in 1794 described the responseto injury as follows: ‘Impressions are capable of producing or increasingnatural actions and are then called stimuli

Mechanisms of Insulin-Induced Alterations in Metabolism during Critical Illness

Author(s): D. Mesotten, G. Van den Berghe

Through the explosion of therapeutic possibilities within the setting ofintensive care medicine, patients can nowadays survive previously lethal diseasestates.

The Metabolic Syndrome as a Clinical Problem

Author(s): P. Kopelman

Insulin resistance is a common metabolic problem characterized by animpaired physiological response to insulin. It is a key factor in the pathogenesisof type-2 diabetes and is present in more than 50% of patients with thecondition [1].

The Effect of Exercise and Diet on Glucose Intolerance and Substrate Utilization?

Author(s): A. Astrup

Intervention studies provide robust evidence of the efficacy of lifestyleintervention, based on diet and exercise, in improving insulin sensitivity andreducing the risk of developing type-2 diabetes in individuals with impairedglucose tolerance (IGT) [1–3].

Muscle Mass and Protein Metabolism

Author(s): G. Biolo, M. De Cicco

Muscle protein content is regulated acutely (minutes to hours) bymodulation of the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. In physiologicalconditions, a small fraction of muscle protein content is lost in the postabsorptivestate, whereas it is immediately regained with the following meal.

Fatty Acid Isomers in Lipid Metabolism

Author(s): J.L. Sébédio, L. Bretillon, J.M. Chardigny, O. Berdeaux

Fatty acid isomers – and we will be mainly dealing with trans fatty acids inthis review – may have two origins. These can be natural fatty acids but theymay also be formed during technological treatments such as hydrogenation,refining or frying of oils [1, 2].

Pathogenic Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in Obesity: From Insulin Resistance to Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): A. Marette

It is now well established that an inflammatory component contributes tothe pathogenesis of obesity-linked diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.First proposed by Hotamisligil et al.

Diet Modifications to Control Hypertension: The Multifactorial Approach

Author(s): C.L. Rock

In the United States and other developed countries, approximately 1 in4 adults has hypertension or high blood pressure, a major risk factor forcoronary heart disease, stroke and renal disease [1].

The Role of Minerals and Trace Elements in Relation to Long-Term Health and Chronic Disease

Author(s): A. Shenkin

By definition, all of the major minerals and essential trace elements arenecessary for health, and the range of these elements implies that they arepart of all aspects of cellular function.

Fluid and Electrolytes in the Clinical Setting

Author(s): D.N. Lobo

The understanding of fluid and electrolyte balance in the clinical setting isoften poor and prescribing is usually left to the most junior member of theteam [1, 2].

Water and Sodium Balance: A Nutritional Goal

Author(s): A. Sitges-Serra

Back in the 5th century BC, Empedocles suggested that the biosphere wascomposed of four elements: earth, wind, fire and water. These four componentsof life are currently known under names different from those dear tothe early philosophers.

Neuro-Hormonal Integration of Metabolism: Challenges and Opportunities in the Postgenomic Era

Author(s): V.L.W. Go, Y. Wang, H. Yang, W-N.P. Lee

Humans are multicellular organisms designed to provide continuous nutritionto all constituent cells by means of nutrient homeostasis through genomicnutrient-metabolic interaction.

Nutrition and Genomics

Author(s): B. German, V.R. Young

The decoding of the human genome is already being heralded as one ofscience’s greatest achievements and is viewed as the point of departure forthe next generation of life science research to understand human health andcure human disease [1].