Nutrition Publication

NNIW14 - Linear Growth Retardation in Less Developed Countries

Editor(s): J.C. Waterlow. vol. 14

Related Articles

Poverty and Stature in Children

Author(s): R. Martorell, F. Mendoza, R. Castillo

The variation in stature among the people of the world is evident to us all.Throughout the years, numerous hypotheses have been advanced to explain differencesin stature among populations.

Observations On The Natural History Of Stunting

Author(s): J.C. Waterlow

The reason for organizing this workshop is very simple. If we use a low weightfor age as the basis for the anthropometric diagnosis of malnutrition, then in manycountries some four-fifths of the children considered to be malnourished are simplysmall in size, with normal weight for height (Table 1).

The Epidemiology of Stunting

Author(s): W. Keller

The process of growth inhibition in children (stunting) leads to "stuntedgrowth." Stunted growth implies the existence of inhibiting factors without whichgrowth would have continued unabated according to the genetically determinedgrowth potential of the individual.

The Use of Short-Term Increments in Length to Monitor Growth in Infancy

Author(s): M.J.R. Healy, M. Yang, J.M. Tanner, F.Y. Zumrawi

We consider how length measurements taken every 4 or every 8 weeks in infancymay be used to detect slowing down of growth as a result of nutritional orother causes. Mixed longitudinal data from 427 children from the Sudan are presented.

The Importance of Genetic Influences on Growth in Early Childhood with Particular Reference to Children of Asiatic Origin

Author(s): D.P. Davies

The growth of long bones and vertebrae, on which body stature largely depends,takes place through activities within the growth plate, a zone of dividing cartilagecells separating the primary from secondary ossification center that deposits substancescontaining mineral salts to form the bone matrix.

Determinants of Growth in Utero

Author(s): R.D.G. Milner

In a logical approach to the subject of determinants of growth in utero, geneticinfluences should be considered separately, since they are fixed at the time of conceptionand immutable.

Endocrine Control of Growth

Author(s): R. Rappaport

It is generally accepted that adequate nutrition is a prerequisite for normal postnatalgrowth. Hormones such as growth hormone (GH), insulin, thyroxine, andsex steroids play a pivotal role in controlling musculoskeletal growth, as provenin a number of well-described clinical conditions (Fig. 1).

Nutritional Growth Retardation: Experimental Studies with Special Reference to Calcium

Author(s): D.R. Fraser

A universal observation in vertebrate biology is that a low plane of nutrition inearly life slows the rate of growth and, if it persists may result in small stature atmaturity.

The Role of Individual Nutrient Deficiencies in Growth Retardation of Children as Exemplified by Zinc and Protein

Author(s): M.H.N. Golden

When a wheat plant is grown in soil low in selenium, the result is a normallysized plant that has a low selenium concentration in its tissues. When a wheatplant is grown on a soil low in zinc, the result is a stunted plant that has a normalconcentration of zinc in its tissues.

The Importance oOf Infections and Environmental Factors as Possible Determinants of Growth Retardation in Children

Author(s): D. Nabarro, P. Howard, Cl. Cassels, M. Pant, A. Wijga, N. Padfield

In this chapter, we examine patterns of children's linear growth in Nepal and inBangladesh. We then present an analysis of different variables associated withslowed linear growth; these include the child's sex, the place where the child lives,the season, the economic status of the household, the ethnic group to which thechild belongs, and illnesses to which the child is exposed.

The Risk of Morbidity in a Stunted Child

Author(s): A. Tomkins

The general relationships between malnutrition and infection have been recognizedfor centuries, but the details of the links have been defined considerably onlyduring the last few decades. Many of the studies examining the effect of malnutritionon the response to infection have been reviewed (1,2).

Mental Development and Stunting

Author(s): M. Colombo, I. de Andraca, I. Lopez

Mental development is a product of the interaction between hereditary and environmentalfactors. If one assumes that the brain is the organ for intellectual functioning,it is important to point out that its development extends over a very longperiod of time, the longest of all organs in the body, and is therefore susceptibleto the influence of a great variety of events that might interfere with its normalevolution: traumas, infections, deprivations, nutritional deficits, etc.

Body Size, Physical Work Capacity, And Productivity In Hard Work: Is Bigger Better?

Author(s): G.B. Spurr

The relationship in poorer, developing nations of the world between small bodysize of the adult population and nutritional deprivation during the period of growthhas been discussed at length in previous chapters. Some of the functional consequenceshave also been discussed.

Linear Growth Retardation and Mortality

Author(s): W. Van Lerberghe

When discussing the relationship between stunting and mortality in developingcountries, one has to distinguish two separate issues, (a) Does being stunted, i.e.,presenting with retarded linear growth, carry an additional risk of dying? (b) Doesstunting, i.e., presenting with deceleration of linear growth, carry an additionalrisk of dying? Very little is known on either subject.

Stunting: Significance and Implications for Public Health Policy

Author(s): C. Gopalan

Available anthropometric data on different communities around the worldbroadly indicate a close relationship between the heights of children (and, for thatmatter, of adults) in a community and the level of its socioeconomic development.The greater the socioeconomic deprivation in a community, the greater, generally,are the extent and degree of stunting in it.