Contrary to most animal species, the human fetus acquires maternal immunoglobulinG (IgG) via the placenta (1) and probably to some extent from swallowed amnioticfluid via Fc-y receptors expressed by fetal enterocytes (2).
Uptake and Transport of Macromolecules by the Intestine
It is my intent in this chapter to clarify the role of the nervous system in theregulation and control of a variety of factors that are important in allergic manifestationsin the gastrointestinal tract.
There is a growing awareness among the public regarding what is termed "foodallergy" and a perception that a variety of distressing physical or psychological problemsand disabilities may be caused by food, methods of food production (agriculturaland industrial), and addition of substances used in promoting animal growth or topreserve and stabilize processed raw supplies, beverages, drinks, and even domestictap water.
Evaluation of Intestinal Permeability in Food Hypersensitivity Disorders
Fussing and crying, especially in the evening, are normal developmental phenomenain infants in the first 3 months of life (1). It is claimed that unexplained paroxysmsof irritability, fussing, or crying that persist for more than 3 hours per day, for morethan 3 days in one week (2), represent a separate clinical condition termed colic (3).
Oral (food) tolerance" usually describes a clinical situation that is not necessarilysynonymous with the immunological definition of "tolerance," that is, as observedduring development, transplantation or neonatal tolerance. In the context of thischapter, "oral tolerance" is defined as an antigen-specific immunological hyporesponsivenessafter prior enteral administration.
Induction of Oral Tolerance
Author(s): S. Husby, J. Mestecky, Z. Moldoveanu, C.O. Elson
Immunologic tolerance may be defined as a state of antigen-specific unresponsivenessinduced by preexposure to an antigen. If the antigen is an allergen, theimmune response is defined as allergy, an adverse reaction with an immunologicbasis mediated by IgE immunoglobulin (1).
The formidable increase in prevalence and morbidity of atopic disease, includingpossibly food allergy, that is occurring throughout the world demands identificationof actions that promote allergy prevention.
Atopic diseases play a major role in the morbidity of the developed industrialcountries. The most susceptible members of the population are children. About 20%to 30% of the children below the age of 15 years are affected by one or more of thetypical atopic diseases such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopicdermatitis, and/or food allergy (1-6).
The first weeks of life seem to be a critical period for the development of allergicmanifestations to food antigens and particularly to cow's milk proteins. Indeed, ithas been shown that in infants with cow's milk allergy supplements of cow's milkformula are given significantly more often in the first 4 weeks than in control infantswithout cow's milk allergy (1).
Effect of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Formula for Babies on Development of Allergic Symptoms During Infancy
Author(s): Y. Iikura, K. Akimoto, M. Ebisawa, T. Onda, A. Akazawa, H. Saito, T. Kimura, K. Ishizawa, N. Koya
Recent statistics show a dramatic increase in the number of patients with allergicdisease in the advanced nations of the world. Even Izuoshima Island in Japan, whichhas no environmental pollution, has been shown to have increased childhood asthma,allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis rates (1).
Effect of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Formula for Mothers on Infant Ige Development
Author(s): Y. Iikura, K. Akimoto, M. Ebisawa, T.Onda, A. Akazawa, T.Katsunuma, Y. Terashima, T. Onda, N. Komuro, M. Kitagawa, S.Sekino, Ha. Ito, N. Tsutsumi, N. Koya