Nutrition Publication

NNIW47 - Infant Formula : Closer to the Reference

Editor(s): N. Räïhä, F.F. Rubaltelli. vol. 47

Related Articles

Infant Formula : Closer to the Reference

Author(s): N. Räïhä, F.F. Rubaltelli

Probiotics and Immune Function: Insights Into Mechanisms of Modulation of Mucosal Immunity by Selected Lactobacilli

Author(s): A. Pfeifer, Eduardo J. Schiffrin, Dirk Haller, T. Von Der Weid, S. Blum

The therapeutic and preventive effects of fermented milk products containing selectedstrains of lactic acid bacteria on diseases such as infections, gastrointestinaldisorders, and food allergy have often been reported (1).

Probiotic Agents: Clinical Applications in Infants and Children

Author(s): J.M. Saavedra

Interest in the use of live microbial agents for health maintenance and disease preventionor treatment has exploded over the last few years.

Iron Requirements During Infancy and Early Childhood

Author(s): F. Haschke

Iron-deficiency anemia is considered to be a common nutritional deficiency diseasein infants and small children, in both developing and developed countries (1-3).Anemia is the usual end point of iron deficiency, but nonheme effects also may contributeto many of the clinical manifestations.

Iron: A Potent Pro-Oxidant

Author(s): G. Buonocore, S. Perrone

Iron, element 26 in the periodic table, is the fourth most abundant element in theearth's crust. It also is the most abundant transition metal in the body (1), and an essentialfactor for the growth and well-being of almost all living organisms (2).

Protein Requirements in Infancy

Author(s): E.E. Ziegler

Adults need nutrients to replace inevitable losses. Infants also need nutrients to replaceinevitable losses, but in addition, infants need nutrients for growth. In the caseof protein, the needs of the infant for growth are large relative to total needs.

Protein Requirements in Preterm Infants

Author(s): G.E. Moro, I. Minoli

The ideal feeding and optimal protein intake in very low birthweight infants duringthe stable growth period after birth have been widely debated. The available foodscommonly used today in very low birthweight infants are as follows

The Role of Probiotics in Gastrointestinal Disorders of Infancy and Childhood

Author(s): S. Guandalini, P. Gupta

Healthy human intestine is a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem, hosting morethan 400 bacterial species (1), concentrated mostly in the terminal ileum and thecolon.

Potential Role of Probiotics in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Author(s): C. Dani, R. Biadaioli, F.F. Rubaltelli

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired syndrome affecting the gastrointestinaltract, defined as "ischemic-inflammatory necrosis of the neonatal bowel." It isone of the most severe pathologies that can affect preterm infants.

Iron Requirements in Infant Formulas During the First 6 Months of Life

Author(s): O. Hernell, M. Domellof, T. Lind

Human milk has unique properties, making exclusive breast feeding the best form ofnourishment for infants during the first 4-6 months of life. During this period, breastmilk alone covers all nutritional needs of the normal infant—that is, for energy,macronutrients, and micronutrients including iron.

Protein Quantity and Quality in Infant Formula: Closer to the Reference

Author(s): N.C.R. Raiha, A. Fazzolari Nesci, C. Cajozzo, G. Puccio, L. Minoli, G.E. Moro, A. Monestier, E. Haschke-Becher, A-L. Carrie, F. Haschke

In 1915 Gerstenberger and Ruh (1) from Western Reserve University in Cleveland,Ohio, USA, developed the first commercially manufactured infant formula called"Synthetic Milk Adapted" or SMA (1).

Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in Breast-Fed and Formula-Fed Infants and Reference Intervals

Author(s): C. Bachmann, E. Haschke-Becher

Reference values and reference intervals, reference individuals or limits—all theseterms and their meanings have been discussed extensively since the 1980s.

Nutrition of Preterm Infants on Discharge from Hospital

Author(s): M. De Curtis, C. Pieltain, J. Rigo

Extensive animal data, largely on rats, show that nutrition at a vulnerable period ofbrain development may have permanent effects on brain size, brain cell number, behavior,learning capacity, and memory (1,2), and that brief periods of early dietarymanipulation also may have lifelong effects on neurodevelopment and health outcomes.

Role and Function of Nucleotides in Infant Nutrition

Author(s): J.J. Boza, O. Martinez-Augustin

Nucleotides are low-molecular-weight biologic compounds that play a major part inalmost all biologic processes. Their main roles include the following (1-3)

Role and Function of Growth Factors on Infant Nutrition

Author(s): L.C. Read, I.A. Penttila, G.S. Howarth, J.M. Clarke, G.O. Regester

Mammalian milk contains numerous secreted factors with wide-ranging biologic andphysicochemical activities. Cow's milk in the diet has been viewed primarily as asource of nourishment through supply of amino acids; however, in addition to theirnutrient value, many milk proteins show biologic activity involved in the maintenance,repair, and proliferation of cells.

Role and Function of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Nutrition

Author(s): C. Agostoni, E. Riva

The term "long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids" (LCPUFAs) is generally used torefer to arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3),which are derived from the two noninterconvertible dietary essential polyunsaturatedfatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), respectively(1).

Fatty Acid Profiles of Infants Fed Formulas Supplemented with Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Author(s): E. Haschke-Becher, A. Fazzolari Nesci, F. Minoli, N.C.R. Raiha, A-L. Carrie, C. Bachmann, F. Haschke

The quality of the dietary fatty acid supply during early life is of increasing interest,as lipids are structural components of all tissues and may play an important role in theneurodevelopment of infants.