Nutrition Publication

NNIW46 - Gastrointestinal Functions

Editor(s): M. Lentze, E.E. Delvin. vol. 46

Related Articles

Malabsorption

Author(s): C.M. Mansbach

Malabsorption is a large topic that covers a variety of states in which the smallintestine absorbs any nutrient incompletely. This can range from congenital malabsorptivestates (e.g., Hartnup disease) in which basic amino acids are poorly absorbed,to immunologically induced problems (e.g., gluten sensitive enteropathy),to iatrogenic problems (e.g., gastric resection or radiation-induced injury), or to the' 'programmed'' malabsorptive state of lactose in older children.

Esophageal Dysfunction

Author(s): Y. Vandenplas

The function of the esophagus, the first organ of the digestive tube, appears verysimple: it is an anteroposteriorly flattened hollow tube organ that transports materialfrom the mouth into the stomach.

Celiac Disease

Author(s): M. Maki

Celiac disease is caused by ingested gluten. In genetically susceptible individuals,it leads to malabsorption of food and nutrients. Characteristically, it has manifestedduring infancy.

Development, Regulation, and Function of Secretory Immunity

Author(s): P. Brandtzaeg

The surface area covered by mucosal epithelia probably amounts to more than200 times that of the skin, thus comprising almost 400 m2 in an adult individual.This extensive and generally vulnerable monolayered epithelial barrier is protectedby numerous innate chemical and physical mechanisms that cooperate intimatelywith adaptive, specific mucosal immunity.

Fuels for Intestinal Cells

Author(s): D.H. Alpers

The mucosa lining the small and large intestine needs fuel to maintain energymetabolism, to express genes, to allow growth during the process of rapid cellturnover, and for nutrient transport and absorption.

Gastric Digestive Function

Author(s): D. Menard, J-R. Basque

The gastric epithelium not only has a protective barrier function (against hydrochloricacid, peptidases, Helicobacter pylori, and so on) and a primary role in epithelialrestitution (ulcer healing), but it also has specific digestive functions.

Exocrine Pancreatic Function

Author(s): J. Morisset

The control of human pancreatic enzyme secretion is still a matter of open debate,as indicated by a recent statement by Adler:"Human pancreatic secretion is regulated through a complicated coordination of neural,hormonal and possibly paracrine effects. Cholinergic input is essential for full action ofany other agonist like cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin" (1).

The Development of the Crypt-Villus Axis

Author(s): N.A. Wright

The epithelium of the small intestine is fashioned to produce crypts (tubular structurescontaining the proliferating cells of the system) and villi (finger-shaped projectionscovered with cells that perform the absorptive functions of the gut).

Assembly And Disassembly Of Brush Borders Driven By Villin, A Unique Bundling/Severing Actin-Binding Protein

Author(s): Sylvie Robine, Evelyne Ferrary, Alexandre Lapillonne, and Daniel Louvard

Digestive processes involve several organs composed of highly specialized epithelialcells. Despite a great diversity of function, all epithelial cells along the digestivetract have certain common structural and functional features.

Regulation of Functional Development of The Small Intestine

Author(s): N.N. Nanthakumar

The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for acquisition of energy and nutrients tosustain life. The small intestine, an important tissue of this organ, is responsible forthe terminal stages of digestion and absorption (1-3).

Human Intestinal Nutrient Transporters

Author(s): E.. Wright

Over the past decade, advances in molecular biology have revolutionized studieson intestinal nutrient absorption in humans. Before the advent of molecular biology,the study of nutrient absorption was largely limited to in vivo and in vitro animalmodel systems.

Role of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Human Intestinal Cell Function: Laminin-Epithelial Cell Interactions

Author(s): J-F. Beaulieu

The intestinal epithelium is a very dynamic tissue, which depends on a varietyof factors for the regulation of its growth as well as for the expression of digestivefunctions during development and in the adult (1,2).

Development of The Structure and Function of the Neuromusculature of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Author(s): P. Milla

The structure and function of the gut results from a complex interplay betweenvarious cell types and components that is regulated by growth factors and hormonestogether with immune and neural inputs (1).

Structure, Function, and Regulation of Intestinal Lactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase and Sucrase-Isomaltase in Health and Disease

Author(s): H.Y. Nairn

Carbohydrates are essential constituents of the mammalian diet. They occur asoligosaccharides, such as starch and cellulose (plant origin), as glycogen (animalorigin), and as free disaccharides such as sucrose (plant) and lactose (animal).

Testing Intestinal Function Possibilities Offered by 13Co2 Breath Tests and Stable Isotopes

Author(s): Y. Ghoos, B. Geypens, P. Rutgeerts

The 13co2 breath test is a reliable, noninvasive method of studying the principalgastrointestinal functions, including the assimilation of food ingredients. Stable isotopesoffer the possibility of monitoring various metabolic events as well.

Autoimmune Enteropathy

Author(s): O. Goulet

The definition, presentation, and outcome of the syndrome of intractable diarrheaof infancy (IDI) have changed considerably during the last three decades becauseof a better understanding of the pathology of the small bowel mucosa and majorimprovements in nutritional management.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Related Models

Author(s): H.A. Biiller

In the clinical setting, inflammatory bowel disease usually presents as eitherCrohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (1), and emerging consensus indicates that theunderlying disorder, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinaltract, is the endpoint of several, possibly many, distinct pathophysiologicprocesses.

Genetics of Gut Mobility Disorders the Model of Hirschsprung's Disease

Author(s): S. Lyonnet, J. Amiel, R. Salomon, T. Attie, R. Touraine, J. Steffann, A. Pelet, C. Nihoul-Fekete, M. Vekemans, A. Munnich

Recent advance in the molecular genetics of Hirschsprung's disease have confirmedthe complex genetic basis of this congenital disorder. In particular, after thedemonstration of mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in a significant proportionof both familial and sporadic cases, additional genes have been identified as responsiblefor colonic aganglionosis in humans and rodents.