Nutrition Publication

NNIW11 - Feeding the Sick Infant

Editor(s): L. Stern. vol. 11

Related Articles

Glucose Homeostasis in the Neonate and Infant

Author(s): R. Schwartz, R.M. Cowett

Glucose homeostasis in the preterm, term, and young infant can be considered from the perspective of either whole body or specifie organ metabolism.

Development of Lipase Activity

Author(s): M. Hamosh

Fat is essential for normal development. Before birth, long-chain fatty acids are provided by the maternai circulation and are also synthesized de novo from glucoseby the fetus.

Protein and Nitrogen Metabolism in Low-Birth-Weight Infants

Author(s): N. Râihâ, G. Boehm

Feeding of the newborn infant has always been one of the central problems in clinical pediatrics. However, the emphasis has generally been centered on the nu-tritional requirements for the normal infant, and much less attention has been given to the needs of the sick or compromised newborn infant.

Developmental Changes of The Gastrointestinal Tract in the Newborn

Author(s): E. Lebenthal, Y.K. Leung

The newborn period is the most critical in the life of an infant. A newborn infantwho has depended entirely on the placenta for nutrients and other necessities before birth will be required to lead an independent life.

Bone Mineralization in Infants: The Contribution of Photon Absorptiometry

Author(s): F. Mimouni, R.C. Tsang

Interest in finding a method for quantitative assessment of bone tissue in vivo dates back to the first significant study on postmenopausal osteoporosis by Al-bright et al. in 1941 (1).

Immunology of Breast Milk

Author(s): M. Xanthou

A most important adaptation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the newborn to the extrauterine environment is the development of a mucosal barrier against the penetration of bacteria, viruses, and other environmental antigens, i.e., food proteins.

Energy Metabolism and Thermorégulation in the Newborn Infant

Author(s): T. Heim

In this chapter the theoretical basis of energy metabolism and thermoregulation will be outlined. The experimental observations made by us and others in recent years on the relationship between thermogenesis and utilization of nutrients in the newborn infant will also be summarized.

Nutrition for the Postoperative Neonate

Author(s): F.G. DeLuca

The nutritional requirements of the postoperative neonate are not significantly different from the nutritional requirements of the newborn.The water content of the infant is higher than that of the adult (70-75% of the body weight versus 60-65%).

Nutritional Problems in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Author(s): D. Vidyasagar, M. Anderson, J. Diaz, R. Bhat, M. Evans

Feeding of the critically ill and premature infant is beset with many problems. Intolerance of enterai feeding occurs because of small gastric volume, poor gastric emptying, and poor gastric motility.

Fetal Nutrition in Intrauterine Growth Retardation

Author(s): R.A. Vileisis

The significance of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is underscored by studies of long-term outcome. Fitzhardinge and Steven (1) hâve shown significant intellectual sequelae in the term newborn who is more than two standard deviationsbelow the lOth percentile in weight at birth.

Nutrition of Prématuré Babies

Author(s): J. Senterre

Two schools of thought exist concerning the nutritional requirements of prematurebabies: (a) the first suggests that the optimal diet should provide nutrients in order to achieve protein and minerai accretion rates and weight gains similar to those of the fetus of same gestational âge (1); (b) the other considers that the pre-term infant is a new biological entity characterized by the immaturity of many or-gans and functions;

Nutritional Aspects of Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Author(s): M. Vidailhet

Inherited metabolic disorders in volve different nutritional aspects. On the one hand, the disease itself can impair normal nutrition. During the end of the fetal growth period and the first two years of life, the human brain grows at an impres-sive rate.

Parenteral Nutrition of the Newborn

Author(s): F.F. Rubaltelli, V. Carnielli, A. Orzali

In an infant population an adequate nutritional state is correlated with lower mortality and morbidity rates. For an optimum nutritional status to be achieved and maintained, it is fundamental that a sufficient amount of calories and nutrients, essential for growth, are absorbed.

Nutrition of Infants With Celiac Disease and With Cystic Fibrosis

Author(s): D.H. Shmerling

The nutritional problems in these two conditions differ in many respects. In celiacdisease (CD) malnutrition becomes a cardinal symptom and finding during late infancy, usually beyond the âge of 6 months; it is quite rare in the older child and in adolescence and is again a feature of the adult patient with gluten-induced celiac sprue.

Nutrition in Chronic Diarrhea of Infancy

Author(s): F. Lifshitz

Chronic diarrhea is a condition characterized by increased fluid excretion in the feces for more than 14 days. This illness can be mild and relatively insignificant as seen in the syndrome of chronic nonspecific diarrhea. These patients do not hâve any of the major organic effects of chronic diarrhea such as dehydration, intestinalmalabsorption, or growth retardation (1,2).