Nutrition Publication

NNIW35 - Diabetes

Editor(s): R. Cowett. vol. 35

Related Articles

Hormonal Control of Glucose Metabolism

Author(s): J. Girard

Plasma glucose concentration is normally maintained within a narrow range despitewide fluctuations in the supply (meal) and demand (exercise) for nutrients. In adulthumans, plasma glucose concentrations throughout a 24-hour period average 90 mg/dl, with maximum values 60-90 minutes after meals, usually not exceeding 140 mg/dl, and values during a moderate fast or exercise usually remaining above 50 mg/dl.

The Etiology of Type 1 Diabetes: Nature and Nurture

Author(s): F.W. Scott

The development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus requires geneticsusceptibility (1). This disease is thought to be the result of an organ-specific autoimmuneprocess in which the immune system reacts abnormally against the body's owninsulin secreting 0 cells in the pancreatic islets.

The Epidemiology of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): J.H. Fuller

Studies of the prevalence of diabetes in the population can serve several usefulpurposes. They can provide information vital to the rational planning of health servicesfor diabetic patients, they can explore hypotheses about risk factors for thedisease and possible causal mechanisms, and finally they can provide estimates ofthe impact of the disease on the health of the population.

The Contributions of Epidemiology to the Understanding of the Etiology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): A.L. Drash

Why does insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occur? What are the factors thataccount for the remarkable variability in the age and timing of onset of clinical disease?

On the Pathogenesis of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Iddm): Advances in Defining Immune Markers for Accurate Prediction of the Disease

Author(s): G.F. Bottazzo, V. Sepe, M. Lai, S. Genovese, E. Bonifacio, E. Bosi

There is general agreement that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is anautoimmune disease (reviewed in 1-7). Evidence supporting this concept includesselective lymphocytic infiltration in and around affected islets (that is, insulitis) atthe time of diagnosis (8)

Can We Detect and Can We Treat Subjects at High Risk of Type 1, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

Author(s): R. Assan, E. Larger, J. Timsit

Until recently, the diagnosis of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM)was simple. Hyperglycemia has always been the gold standard for the diagnosis ofdiabetes, and insulin dependency is usually easy to identify from simple clinical andmetabolic parameters.

Pathogenesis of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): R.N. Bergman, M. Ader

Non-insulin dependent diabetes is a cause of rising morbidity and mortality indeveloped countries. In the United States, it is estimated that there are 14 millionNIDDM cases (7% of the population), approximately half of whom remain undiagnosed.

Diabetes in Pregnancy

Author(s): P.M. Catalano

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that occurs during humangestation. In the United States, diabetes (including gestational diabetes) affects approximately3-5% of all pregnant women (1) or about 70,000-100,000 women peryear.

Maternal Diabetes: Consequences for the Offspring

Author(s): K. Holemans, L. Aerts, J. Verhaeghe, F.A. Van Assche

The physiological changes of pregnancy tend to reset glucose homeostasis in thedirection of diabetes. About 2-3% of all pregnant women develop abnormal glucosetolerance in pregnancy.

The Infant of the Diabetic Mother

Author(s): R.M. Cowett

The infant of the diabetic mother (IDM) is a prime example of the problems that mayexist in the neonate secondary to maternal disease (diabetes).

Clinical Presentation of Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood

Author(s): R. Schwartz, P.A. Walsh

The Papyrus Ebers contained reference to a condition that may have been diabetesmellitus dating back to before 1500 BC. A good clinical description was given byCelsus (30 BC-50 AD).

Long-Term Consequences of Diabetes and Its Complications May Have a Fetal Origin: Experimental and Epidemiological Evidence

Author(s): B. Reusens, S. Dahri, A. Snoeck, N. Bennis-Taleb, C. Remade, J. J. Hoet

Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes may suffer from major vascular diseaseleading to retinopathy, glomerulonephropathy and hypertension as well as to neuropathy,especially in the presence of poor metabolic control.

The Effect of Intensive Diabetes Management on the Complications of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

Author(s): O.B. Crofford

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was designed to assessthe value of intensive treatment in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM).

Exercise in Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Aspects

Author(s): N. Katsilambros, V. Rabavila

The treatment of diabetic patients for the past 70 years has been based on drugs(insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents), diet, and exercise.

New Approaches to the Prevention of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

Author(s): E.A.M. Gale

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) remains an incurable disease. Themetabolic lesion resulting from /3 cell destruction cannot be reversed, and insulinreplacement therapy remains palliative at best.

Protein Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus: Implications for Clinical Management

Author(s): R. Gougeon, P.B. Pencharz, E.B. Marliss

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by derangements in the metabolism not only ofglucose and fat but also of protein (1). However, protein has always received lessattention than fat and glucose, both in terms of alterations in its metabolism and inits nutritional implications.

Pancreas and Islet Cell Transplantation

Author(s): D. Sutherland, R. Gruessner, P. Gores

Pancreatic and islet transplantation, either as an immediately vascularized organgraft or as a free graft of dispersed tissue, is the only treatment of type 1 diabetesthat can establish an insulin-independent state (1).

Education in Diabetes

Author(s): M. Benroubi

Education is the process that will enable patients with diabetes to obtain the optimummetabolic control while continuing to maintain their chosen style of life. Educationis not merely the process of informing and providing theoretical knowledge.