Nutrition Publication

NNIW12 - Developmental Neurobiology

Editor(s): A. Minkowski & Ph. Evrard. vol. 12

Related Articles

Normal Development of Cerebral Neocortex

Author(s): V.S. Caviness

The mammalian central nervous system develops through a series of complex cellularprocesses which may be grouped into two broad phases (1,2). The first, cytogenesisand histogenesis, is a phase in which neurons are formed, move to theircorrect positions, and elaborate the primary neuritic processes which contribute toemerging dendritic fields and axon fascicles.

Cerebral Malformations Arising in the First Half of Gestation

Author(s): R.S. Williams

The brain evolves through a series of temporally overlapping stages. Brain malformationsmay be analyzed in the context of the stage or stages during which thepathologic process was judged to be initially and maximally active.

Abnormal Development and Destructive Processes of the Human Brain During the Second Half of Gestation

Author(s): P. Evrard, H.J. Kadhim, Ph. de Saint-Georges, J-F. Gadisseux

Most viable developmental brain disorders occurring during the second half ofgestation lead to neurological defects that can range from minimal learning or motordeficits to major motor and cognitive handicaps.

Discussion for Chapters by Caviness, Williams, and Evrard

Author(s): A. Sotelo, Dr. Williams, Dr. Caviness, Dr. Evrard

Dr. Sotelo: I should like Dr. Evrard and Dr. Caviness to speculate about themechanism of the formation of the gyri. According to Dr. Williams it appears thatcytogenetic problems may be responsible for the absence of gyri, but in your chapter,Dr. Evrard, it seems that problems in brain vascularization may actually inducethe formation of gyri.

Cellular Interactions during Neuronal Development

Author(s): G. Barbin

Synaptogenesis is one of the final events during neurogenesis and is preceded bya series of phenomena (both progressive and regressive) overlapping in time but yetdistinguishable (see Caviness, this volume).

Peroxisomes and Central Nervous System Dysgenesis and Dysfunction

Author(s): S.L. Goldfischer

Peroxisomes play a key role in a number of genetic diseases. These include disordersin which the activity of a peroxisomal enzyme is deficient and an extraordinarygroup of diseases in which the formation of the organelle itself is defective (1-3)(Table 1).

Peroxisomes and Brain Development: Search for an Animal Model

Author(s): J. Vamecq, A.M. Goffinet, I. Labrique, J-P. Draye, F. Van Hoof

Until recently the assertion that mammalian peroxisomes play a role in the developmentof the central nervous system was received with incredulity by most investigatorsdespite the demonstration by Goldfischer et al.

Gene Mapping Techniques

Author(s): J-L. Guenet

Very accurate gene mapping is essential in both man and laboratory mammals ( 1 -3). Several techniques have been used over the last 50 years to localize mammaliangenes on the chromosomes of a given species.

Expression of Myelin Basic Protein Genes in the Developing Mouse Brain

Author(s): A.T. Campagnoni, H.J. Roth, M. Hunkeler, P.J. Pretorius, C.W. Campagnoni

Myelination is a major biological event during the early postnatal development ofthe mouse brain, yet relatively little is known about the mechanism and regulationof myelin assembly.

Developmental Synthesis of Myelin Lipids: Origin of Fatty Acids—Specific Role of Nutrition

Author(s): J-M. Bourre

Nerve cells and myelin require an adequate supply of nutrients, particularly lipids,for their formation and development. This chapter examines the role of nutritionin the synthesis of myelin lipids.

Formation of Cerebellar Projection Maps: Development of Olivo- and Spinocerebellar Projections

Author(s): C. Sotelo

In spite of the apparent homogeneity of the cerebellar cortex, which is composedthroughout of the same neuronal populations and the same types of afferent and efferentsystems, the anatomical work of Voogd (1) and the electrophysiological studiesof Oscarsson (2)

Do Serotonin and Other Neurotransmitters Exert a Trophic Influence on the Immature Brain?

Author(s): M. Hamon, S. Bourgoin, C. Chanez, F. De Vitry

Monoamines have an important cerebral regulatory function in adult animals. Serotonin(5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) arecentral neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of major functions such as nociception,sleeping and waking cycles, thermoregulation, and some types of behavior(e.g., the 5-HT syndrome evoked by 5-HT agonists, or the turning behavior inducedby DA agonists in rats with a unilateral lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatalpathway).

Biochemical Changes during Early Myelination of the Human Brain

Author(s): M. Martinez

The onset of myelination is of great interest in the field of pediatric nutrition becauseit is one of the critical periods of brain development during which nutritionalinfluences may lead to neurological deficiencies.

Visual Function in The Normal and Neurologically Compromised Newborn Infant

Author(s): L. M.S. Dubowitz, J. Mushin, L. De Vries

In the adult, vision is a cortical function and thus it has always been assumed thatthis would also hold true for the newborn infant.

Perinatal Cerebral Circulation and Its Pathological Perturbations

Author(s): H. Lou

In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the significance of hemodynamicfactors in the pathogenesis of perinatal neurologic disorders.

Positron Emission Tomography in the Study if Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Premature Infant With Major Intraventricular Hemorrhage and in the Term Newborn with Asphyxia

Author(s): J.J. Volpe

The two major causes of neurological morbidity and mortality related to definableevents in the neonatal period are intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with hemorrhagicintracerebral involvement in the preterm infant, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathyin the asphyxiated term infant.

Discussion for Chapters by Lou and Volpe

Author(s): L.M.S.Dubowitz, H. Lou, J.J. Volpe

Dr. Dubowitz: I agree with Dr. Lou that the primary lesions in large intracranialhemorrhages are ischemic. The demonstration of this is dependent on having a reallygood 7 MHz ultrasound scanner which allows you to see ischemic lesions precedingthe hemorrhage.

Psychological Factors in Neurological Development

Author(s): M.H. Teicher

In exploring the role of psychological factors in neurological development— andby extension—behavior, we tread firmly on the nature-nurture controversy, anarena of debate that has ensnarled many bright minds and often generated great heatbut little light.

Nutritional Influences on Neurological Development: A Contemplative Essay

Author(s): N. Kretchmer

Arguments concerned with the impact of malnutrition on neurological developmenthave been a matter of considerable scientific and political interest during thepast two decades.

Interaction of Alcohol with the Delta-Opioid Receptor

Author(s): M.E. Charness, A.S. Gordon, I. Diamond

Ethanol has both pharmacologic and toxic effects in the developing and maturenervous systems (1). The toxic effects, which are associated with chronic abuse,may depend on ethanol's pharmacologic actions.

Some Aspects of Clinical and Biochemical Changes Related to Nutrition during Brain Development in Humans

Author(s): A. Ballabriga

A large number of publications during the last 15 years have addressed the questionof the influence of nutrition, particularly nutritional deprivation, on brain development.

Experimental Studies on the Effect of Early Malnutrition on the Norepinephrinergic System Projecting to the Cerebral Cortex

Author(s): R. Soto-Moyano, A. Hernandez, H. Perez, S. Ruiz, J. Belmar

It is generally accepted that the higher functions of the central nervous system areclosely related to association areas of the cerebral cortex. This notion is based onconsiderable evidence obtained from studies mainly performed in freely movingmonkeys.

Brain Development and Nutrition

Author(s): N. Herschkowitz

Two questions regarding brain development and nutrition are of particular importance:How long does brain development (i.e., growth and differentiation) continue?and What are the effects of malnutrition on neurotransmitter systems? Manyof the research data available today are derived from animal experiments, and thelimitations of animal studies are well known.