Nutrition Publication

NNIW07 - Clinical Nutrition: Early Intervention

Editor(s): D. Labadarios, C. Pichard. Clinical Nutrition vol. 07

Related Articles

Clinical Nutrition: Early Intervention

Author(s): De. Labadarios, C. Pichard

It can be successfully argued that, teleologically, the acute phase responsehas been of fundamental importance in the survival of life as we knowit today.

Genotypic Influences on Metabolic Alterations during Inflammation and the Nutritional Outcome

Author(s): R.F. Grimble

Inflammation is part of the immune response, whose function is to combatpathogens and restore health following injury and surgery. Inflammation alsooccurs in a less helpful role during cancer, exposure to environmental pollutants,radiation, and allergens, and during chronic inflammatory disease.

Fatty Acids and Gene Expression Related to Inflammation

Author(s): P.C. Calder

Inflammation is the body’s immediate response to infection or injury. Itis typified by redness, swelling, heat and pain. These occur as a result ofincreased blood flow, increased permeability across blood capillaries whichpermits large molecules (e.g. complement, antibodies, cytokines) to leavethe bloodstream and cross the endothelial wall, and increased movementof leukocytes from the bloodstream into the surrounding tissue.

Nutritional Modulation of Gut Inflammation

Author(s): E.G. Seidman, S. Bernotti, E. Levy

Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract remains a common cause ofmorbidity, reduced quality of life and, in certain cases, may be fatal. Despiteintensified research efforts and significant advancements, our understandingof the mechanisms underlying many conditions such as ischemia reperfusioninjury of the gut, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and sepsis of gut originremains unclear.

How Valid Is the Concept of Antioxidants and Cell Injury?

Author(s): X.M. Leverve, C. Batandier, E. Fontaine

In the struggle for life, humans as every mammal and other living species,have to face two main dangers: (1) the competition against other individualsor other living species, including parasites, bacteria and viruses, and (2) theextreme toxicity of oxygen.

Optimizing Intravenous Supply of Functional Lipid Components

Author(s): Y.A. Carpentier, I.E. Dupont

The aims of nutritional support administered to acutely ill patients havemarkedly evolved with time, from supplying huge amounts of calories andnitrogen (in an attempt to abolish the catabolic response and to guaranteeweight gain) to providing a limited and balanced intake of macro- and micronutrientsin order to maintain or restore an adequate composition of differentbody compartments [1].

Optimization of Dietary Protein Intake during Aging

Author(s): B. Beaufrère

Body protein homeostasis primarily depends on protein intake, even ifother dietary factors, such as the energy content of the diet also play a role.However, protein intake can affect protein homeostasis in a variety of ways

Vitamin and Antioxidant Supplementation: Critical Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes

Author(s): B.R. Bistrian

The systemic inflammatory response is a critical component of the innateimmune system in man that develops in a stereotypical manner to injury,inflammation, and infection.

Trace Elements: Contribution to the Efficacy of Nutritional Support

Author(s): A. Shenkin

Efficacy of nutritional support can be defined in two main ways: the firstrelates to the production of new body tissue or the prevention of loss ofexisting tissue, this could either be growth in a child or repair or maintenancein an adult, and the second relates to how well the various body tissuesare functioning.

Timing of Nutritional Support

Author(s): R.L. Chioléro, L. Tappy, M.M. Berger

Extensive progress has been made in techniques of artificial nutrition ofcritical care patients. Nutritional support has progressively evolved froman adjuvant to a supportive life-saving therapy, like mechanical ventilation,hemodynamic support or dialysis.

Signaling Factors for Gut Adaptation

Author(s): A. Okada

With the increasing number of patients safely receiving long-term totalparenteral nutrition (TPN), it has become clear that there is a group of patients,in whom treatment is totally dependent on TPN for a prolonged period oftime.

Parenteral Versus Enteral Nutrition: Can We Get Rid of the Myths?

Author(s): P.B. Soeters, C.H.J. Dejong, M.F. Von Meyenf

Modern clinical science asks for prospective randomized trials to assessthe efficacy of treatment modalities. These trials can then be combined in ameta-analysiswhich, depending on the quality of the studies (level of evidence:1 = best, 2, 3 or 4 = worst), can lead to recommendations with varying grades.A grade-A recommendation relies on studies of the highest quality (prospective,randomized, double-blind, sufficient power, homogenous populations,single modality intervention, hypothesis testing, clinical endpoints), and istherefore stronger than grade-B, C and D recommendations, which rely onstudies of decreasing quality [1].

Specialized Nutrition Support in The Critically Ill: For Whom and When?

Author(s): R.D. Griffiths

For the purpose of this article, ‘specialized nutrition support’ means usingnutrient formulations that have particular adaptations deemed either to alterthe inflammatory response or correct a conditional deficiency.

The Primary Target of Nutritional Support: Body Composition or Muscle Function?

Author(s): A.J.M. Wagenmakers

In a 70-kg man, skeletal muscle accounts for 40–50% of the total bodymass. A loss of the muscle mass due to the net breakdown of muscle proteinsis a common feature of many acute and long-term illnesses.

Body Composition in Pediatrics to Geriatrics: A Lesson for Nutritional Monitoring

Author(s): S.B. Heymsfield, Z. Wang, W. Shen

Once a little-studied scientific area, today the study of body composition isof intense interest to investigators exploring between individual phenotypicdifferences and the rich heterogeneity in shape and form that exists acrossthe human lifespan.

Efficacy of Nutritional Support: Evidence-Based Nutrition and Cost-Effectiveness

Author(s): D.L. Waitzberg

The treatment of diseases encompasses a nutritional approach from ancienttimes, however it was only 200 years ago that the fundamentals of biochemistry,physiology and organic chemistry were firmly solidified as science.

Nutritional Intervention: What of the Future?

Author(s): M.M. Meguid

In the practice of nutritional intervention as it relates to the sick patient,the future is today! Predicting future developments in nutritional interventiondepends on technical innovations, yet to be realized, which will facilitate theimplementation of advances in nutritional support.

Timely Nutritional Support: Thoughts for the Future

Author(s): C. Pichard, D. Labadarios

The common characteristic of the past 3 days has been the high quality ofthe presentations, the intensity of the ensuing discussions, fueled by speakersand delegates alike, the many take-home messages for our practices and theinevitable, but crucial in workshops of this nature, sobering questions thatremain in need of urgent answers in the field we addressed.