Nutrition Publication

NNIW15 - Biology of Human Milk

Editor(s): L. Hanson. vol. 15

Related Articles

New Developments Related to Nutritional Aspects of Protein in Human Milk

Author(s): N.C.R. Raiha

Recommendations for protein intake in normal infants (1,2) are based onthe assumption that human milk has a nutritionally available protein contentof 12 to 13 g/liter (3). Based on amino acid analysis of milk protein, theprotein content is 8.8 g/liter (4), and based on nondialyzable nitrogen, 9.6g/liter (5).

Energy Content of Breast Milk and Metabolizable Energy Intake in Breast- Fed Infants

Author(s): A. Lucas, S.B. Roberts, G. Ewing, W. A. Coward

The nutrient intake of exclusively breast-fed infants has been used as aguide for the dietary requirements of healthy infants.

Electron Microscopy and Carbohydrate Histochemistry of the Human Milk Fat Globule Membrane

Author(s): W. Buchheim, U. Welsch, S. Patton

The membranes of milk fat globules are derived from apical plasma membraneof the lactating mammary epithelial cells.

Enzymes in Milk: Their Function in the Mammary Gland, in Milk, and in the Infant

Author(s): M. Hamosh

Human milk, like the milk of other species, contains numerous enzymes.Although this topic has been reviewed (1-4), the first two publications providelittle information about the physiological significance of these enzymes.Shahani et al.

Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D in Human Milk

Author(s): B.L. Salle, J. Senterre, F.D. Glorieux, G. Putet

Human milk is considered an optimal source of calcium and phosphorusfor the feeding of normal term infants because of its satisfactory calcium/phosphorus ratio and low phosphorus concentration, and because it is anadequate source of antirachitic activity (1).

Trace Elements in Human Milk

Author(s): L.S. Hurley, B. Lonnerdal

Under natural conditions, milk is the only food of the newborn mammal;it must therefore provide all the nutrients necessary for normal growth anddevelopment of the infant.

Taurine in Human Milk: Biological Significance

Author(s): C.E. Wright, G.E. Gaull

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) is a sulfur-containing (3-amino acidpresent in many animal species but rare in most species of plants (1).

Epidermal and Neural Growth Factors in Milk: Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Development Of The Gastrointestinal Tract

Author(s): D. Menard, P. Arsenault

Over the years, many hormones have been identified in the milk of humansand other mammals (1).

Possible Physiological Role of Hormones and Hormone-Related Substances Present in Milk

Author(s): O. Koldovsky, A. Bedrick, P. Pollack, R. K. Rao, W. Thornburg

The presence of hormones in milk was described 50 years ago (1-3), andimportant studies were performed in the late 1950s (4,5); but only in the pastdecade have methodological advances in hormone assays allowed detailedexploration of this subject.

Antiviral and Antibacterial Factors in Human Milk

Author(s): L.A. Hanson, B. Carlsson, F. Jalil, M. Hahn-Zoric, S. Hermodson, J. Karlberg, L. Mellander, S. Raza Khan, B. Lindblad, K. Thiringer, S. Zaman

Almost a 100 years ago, Ehrlich demonstrated that milk contains protectivefactors (1). They were later found in the milk from various species,including humans.

Antiparasitic Factors in Human Milk

Author(s): O. Hernell, L. Blackberg

Human milk is known to contain numerous components with potentialantimicrobial effects—immunoglobulins, enzymes, nutrient binding proteins,components of the complement system, receptor analogs, etc.

Mucosal Immunity and The Mammary Gland

Author(s): J-P. Kraehenbuhl, R. Weltzin, E. Schaerer, R. Solari

Human milk contains mucosal antibodies, a special class of polymericimmunoglobulins associated with secretory component (SC) (Fig. 1), whichplay a crucial role in protecting the newborn against environmental pathogens.

Allergy Prevention: Does Maternal Food Intake during Pregnancy or Lactation Influence the Development of Atopic Disease during Infancy?

Author(s): N.-I.M. Kjellman

Animal experiments, especially those of the late Ellen Jarrett on hoodedLister rats, indicate that massive allergen contact is needed to induce tolerance(1).

Factors Controlling the Bacterial Colonization of the Neonatal Intestine

Author(s): P. Raibaud

The intestinal tract and microbial flora of mammals and birds constitutea very complex ecosystem that plays a major role in the health of the host.