Nutrition Publication

NNIW53 - Allergic Diseases and the Environment

Editor(s): E. Isolauri, W.A. Walker. vol. 53

Related Articles

Clinical Overview: The Changing Pattern of Clinical Aspects of Allergic Diseases

Author(s): Y. Vandenplas

Allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunological mechanisms.Although wide individual variations may be observed, atopic diseasestend to be related to the first decades of life, and obviously require a juvenileimmune system.

The Changing Prevalence and Clinical Profile of Food Allergy in Infancy

Author(s): D.J. Hill, R.G. Heine, C.S. Hosking

It appears to be general consensus that the prevalence of food allergies andrelated atopic disorders is increasing in industrialized countries [1]. However,it has remained unresolved to what extent this represents a true prevalenceincrease or is attributable to an increasing awareness of the clinical manifestationsof food allergy [2].

The Hygiene Hypothesis: Modulation of tThe Atopic Phenotype by Environmental Microbial Exposure

Author(s): P.G. Holt

The hygiene hypothesis was first proposed in its present form by Strachan[1] in a landmark publication in 1989, as an explanation for the apparentinverse relationship between family size and/or hygiene, and susceptibility toallergic disease.

Allergy: Is It A Th2-Predominant Disease? Pro

Author(s): Sergio Romagnani

The history of discoveries on the pathogenesis of atopic allergy can bedivided into two main phases. The first phase, which started in 1879 whenEhrlich [1] first described mast cells and eosinophils, includes the discovery ofreagins by Prausnitz and Kustner [2] in 1921, and ended in 1967 with the identificationof the IgE nature of reaginic antibodies, independently performed byIshizaka and Ishizaka [3] and Johansson [4].

The Induction of Immunoregulation Prevents the Development of Immunopathology in Chronic Helminth Infections and Allergy

Author(s): A.H.J. Van den Biggelaar, M. Yazdanbakhsh

Humans are exposed to aeroallergens worldwide, but only some (in theWest an estimated 40%) become sensitized, i.e. produce allergen-specificIgE antibodies.

Mechanisms Governing Non-Responsiveness to Food Proteins

Author(s): C. Nagler-Anderson, W.A. Walker

Dietary antigens and the luminal bacterial load are the major sources ofchronic antigenic stimulation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).Experimentally, oral administration of soluble protein antigens inducessystemic non-responsiveness (‘oral tolerance’) to peripheral antigen challenge[for review see, 1].

Oral Tolerance and Gut Maturation

Author(s): S. Murch

The maturation of intestinal function varies greatly between species.Clear maturational changes are seen in both enterocyte function andimmune responses.

The Role of Bacteria in the Development of Intestinal Protective Function

Author(s): N.N. Nanthakumar, W.A. Walker

The primary function of the gastrointestinal tract is to complete thedigestion and absorption of nutrients so as to provide a source of energy andsubstrate for growth and maintenance of the complete organism.

Human Colonic Microbes: Ecology, Physiology and Metabolic Potential of Intestinal Bacteria

Author(s): G.T. Macfarlane, S, Macfarlane

Humans live in close association with vast numbers of microorganisms thatare present on the skin, in the mouth and in the genital and gastrointestinaltracts.

Does Breast-Feeding Protect from Allergies?

Author(s): R.L. Bergmann, K.E. Bergmann, J.W. Dudenhausen

The resurgence of breast-feeding in the Western world since the early1970s is paralleled by a dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergicdiseases (fig. 1) [1–3]. Breast-feeding and allergies are more prevalent inmore advantaged people than in the poor, in higher social classes, and inpersons of higher education [4]. Does a causal relationship exist between bothphenomena? Does breast-feeding protect from allergies or rather promotethem? Is the breast best for all infants?

Protective Nutrients and Gastrointestinal Allergies

Author(s): C. Duggan

The nutritional management of gastrointestinal (GI) allergic diseases hashistorically relied on the avoidance of dietary allergens. Among formula-fedinfants, in whom food allergies are often transient and alternative sources ofnutrients are plentiful, this approach is appropriate, safe, and often effective.Dietary avoidance of foods, however, entails nutritional risks and can bedifficult to maintain if allergies are numerous or persistent. An alternativeapproach in treating GI diseases due to allergy, infection or others is theprovision of some of a variety of nutrients that may actively exert healthfulaffects on the GI tract. Here a review is made of the evidence that standardapproaches of dietary avoidance may be poorly designed for optimal health,as well as the possibility that so-called gut-protective nutrients may play arole in mediating intestinal inflammation.1970s is paralleled by a dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergicdiseases (fig. 1) [1–3].

Identification of Probiotics and Prebiotics with Antiallergenic Properties

Author(s): S. Salminen, E. Isolauri

Probiotics have been defined as bacterial preparations which impartclinically verified beneficial health effects on the host when consumed orally.Prebiotics are nonabsorbable carbohydrates which act by promoting beneficialmembers of intestinal microbiota in a manner that provides demonstratedhealth benefits to humans [1]. Most probiotics are currently either lactic acidbacteria or bifidobacteria, but new species and genera are being assessedfor probiotic use. Common prebiotics are based on fructo-oligosaccharidesfrom plant sources or lactose-based galacto-oligosaccharides resembling thosefound in breast milk [1].historically relied on the avoidance of dietary allergens. Among formula-fedinfants, in whom food allergies are often transient and alternative sources ofnutrients are plentiful, this approach is appropriate, safe, and often effective.

Can We Prevent the Allergic Child from Becoming a Chronic Asthmatic Adult?

Author(s): A.H. Liu

A rich body of evidence provides the basis for paradigms of asthma development,intervention strategies, and studies to test prevention hypotheses(fig. 1). Longitudinal prospective studies of asthma provide the strongestepidemiological evidence for supporting causal relationships in asthmadevelopment and prevention. These studies suggest an ‘allergic march’ inchildhood, of food allergies and atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy progressingto allergic airways disease and persistent, allergy-associated asthma. Allergyassociatedasthma appears to be the most common asthma phenotypein locales where this has been studied.clinically verified beneficial health effects on the host when consumed orally.Prebiotics are nonabsorbable carbohydrates which act by promoting beneficialmembers of intestinal microbiota in a manner that provides demonstratedhealth benefits to humans [1].

The German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study (Gini): A Model for Allergy Prevention

Author(s): A. Von Berg

It is widely accepted that the early contact of the neonatal immune systemwith food antigens plays an important role in the complex process of allergydevelopment, especially in children with an atopic genotype.

Novel Approaches for the Nutritional Management of the Allergic Infant

Author(s): E. Isolauri

Allergic diseases, manifesting as atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma,are on the increase in industrialized countries, currently in fact constitutingthe most common chronic diseases of childhood [1]. Despite the pronouncedhereditary element in allergic disease, genetic factors are unlikely to explainthe increased emergence of the atopic-type immune responsiveness toenvironmental antigens. Rather, it would appear that environmental changesmore directly shape the immune responder type of the host during a criticalperiod of life.intervention strategies, and studies to test prevention hypotheses(fig. 1).